Almost everyone knows a friend or acquaintance who is diabetic. What most people may not realize is that diabetes may be present in their own home, possibly in a feline friend.
Diabetes is a group of diseases that result from either inadequate insulin production or the inability of cells to respond to this hormone. Insulin is necessary to help move glucose from the blood stream into tissue cells for use as energy. The predominant characteristic of diabetes is the presence of high levels of glucose in the blood…this is known as hyperglycemia.
In humans, one type of this disease is known as Type I or insulin-dependent diabetes. This illness results from the body’s immune system destroying the cells that make insulin. This is the predominant form of diabetes in our canine companions and there is no known way to prevent it.
Type II, or non-insulin dependent diabetes, accounts for 90-95% of diabetes in people and 85-90% of cases in cats. In this instance, the beta cells of the pancreas that produce insulin either become exhausted or they fail to respond to signals to produce the hormone. The important aspect of this to remember is that it is possible for treatment to lead to a remission of the disease.
While the number of cases of diabetes in dogs has remained static for many years, some veterinarians feel that they are seeing an increasing number of diabetic cats. Although the true incidence of feline diabetes is not precisely known, estimates for North America show that about 1 in every 200-400 cats develop this disease. What is important to remember is that as our cats have developed a tendency towards obesity, diabetes cases have risen rapidly.
Being obese or overweight is a risk factor for Type II diabetes because of the chronic inflammatory state obesity produces. This leads to a reduction in insulin sensitivity. In addition, fat cells in overweight animals stop producing a certain hormone essential for proper insulin receptor function.
Cats with diabetes often go extended periods of time with no real sign that anything is wrong. When signs do appear, the first indications are a cat who needs to use the litter box more frequently and who is drinking greater amounts of water. Unfortunately, cat owners are not always aware of these signs, especially if their kitty often goes outdoors. This means that many cats aren’t diagnosed for months after the onset of diabetes.
Without diagnosis and treatment, diabetes will eventually cause a metabolic condition known as ketoacidosis. This leads to dangerous changes in the blood chemistry, dehydration and eventually, death.
When cats are seen by a veterinarian, this disease is often diagnosed with a simple blood test. Hyperglycemia or any glucose in the urine (glucosuria) is often indicative of diabetes. Veterinarians can also use a blood test known as serum fructosamine to determine the average blood glucose values over the course of the last three weeks.
In some cases, cats don’t get into the veterinarian until the disease has progressed even further. In these cases, the presence of ketones (a by-product of using fatty acids for energy) in the urine is a definitive indicator of complicated diabetes.
Unlike diabetic dogs who will be on insulin replacement for the rest of their lives, it is possible to treat cats and allow for remission. The goal of treatment in cats is to restore the functionality of the beta cells and their ability to produce insulin. In fact, new evidence is now showing that high protein, low carbohydrate diets are instrumental in helping cats defeat diabetes. In short, although your feline friend may need insulin initially, you might be able to reduce or even eliminate this medication as you help the cat lose weight.
Owners of diabetic cats can also learn to monitor blood glucose levels at home, sparing the cat from frequent visits to the veterinarian.
As with any medical condition, the very best source of information will be your veterinarian. He or she can steer you through the diagnosis and treatment process and then help you with monitoring your pet’s progress and potential recovery. More
The history of smoking tobacco may reach back many hundreds of years, but research in the 20th century has made it clear how harmful this habit is. Furthermore, secondhand smoke has been implicated in the illnesses and even deaths of non-smokers. What’s even more disturbing is that smokers may have unknowingly contributed to severe disease in dogs and cats.
Most people understand that secondhand smoke from cigarettes contains an incredible number of hazardous substances and many of them are carcinogenic. These chemicals are found in high concentrations in carpets and on furniture around the home. Pets sharing this environment will get these toxins on their fur and then ingest them during normal grooming.
Dr. Ann Hohenhaus, a board certified specialist in veterinary internal medicine and certified veterinary journalist, has written that increased numbers of smokers and smoking in households corresponds with higher levels of the by-products of nicotine metabolism in pets sharing that home. She further describes how carbon deposits are often seen in the lungs of these animals.
Research is now showing that our pets’ health is affected in ways similar to what is seen in humans.
In the early 1990s, researchers found correlations between nasal cancers in dogs and the presence of smokers in the home. There is also a concern that environmental tobacco smoke may increase the incidence of lung cancer in our canine friends as well.
Cats may actually be at higher risk for serious disease when they live in a smoking environment. As mentioned above, many cigarette smoke toxins settle to low levels in the home and cats will pick up these substances on their fur. Because of their fastidious grooming habits, cats end up ingesting a higher level of chemicals and this leads to a greater chance of several types of cancer.
Lymphoma is a cancer of white blood cells and is one of the most common cancers seen in our pet cats. When smokers are present in the cat’s household, the risk for this killer is increased by two or three times over cats living in non-smoking homes. Sadly, when our feline friends are diagnosed with lymphoma, the prognosis is very poor and many won’t survive another six months.
Another serious cancer with links to secondhand smoke is a cancer of the mouth known as squamous cell carcinoma, or SCC. Studies have linked a higher risk for SCC in cats living in smoking homes. Again, the prognosis is very grave and most pets won’t survive another year.
An unpublished study has also found that the levels of nicotine found in the hair of dogs exposed to second hand smoke is similar to levels found in children living with parents who smoke.
With more than 46 million smokers in North America and about 60% of the population owning dogs or cats, the risk for the animals is substantial. Pets are often good at hiding signs of illness, so many smoking owners fail to realize the damage that their habit is causing to the four legged family member.
Of course, the best course of action is to give up the tobacco habit entirely. It’s not only best for the health of the smoker, it will also greatly reduce risks for pets. Understanding that it’s not easy to quit this addictive habit, people who smoke and have pets should attempt to minimize their pets’ exposure by smoking outdoors.
Another important thing to remember is that smoking in the car with pets can create a toxic environment, even with the windows open. Some states and Canadian provinces even ban smoking in cars when children are passengers because of the chance for serious exposures. If you must smoke when you drive, leave your pets and kids at home!
Pets who are developing illnesses from secondhand smoke may exhibit symptoms ranging from lethargy to coughing to the appearance of masses in the mouth. It’s important to have your pet seen by a veterinarian if any of these signs are noted. More
Non-anesthetic dental scalings (NADS) or “anesthesia free pet dentals” involve removing tartar from an animal’s teeth by simply holding the pet and not using any sort of sedation or anesthetic. Many of the websites promoting this service tout their “proprietary restraint techniques” as the reason they are able to work in your pet’s mouth while he or she is awake.
Videos advocating this practice show well-behaved pets sitting quietly on the floor or on laps while individuals scrape their teeth with sharp dental instruments. Is this how it happens or is this simply marketing hype?
Businesses that encourage these types of procedures claim that their methods are safer, healthier for the pet and less costly for the owner. However, understanding the risks of these supposedly safer options might offer an opposing view.
First, these methods should not be called “pet dentistry”. Dentistry involves much more than a simple scaling of the teeth. In fact, the term dentistry is defined as the branch of medical science concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases and disorders of the teeth and gums. The American Veterinary Dental College prefers the term “non-anesthetic dental scalings”, or NADS, as this more accurately describes these procedures. Individuals doing these scalings are rarely trained in dentistry.
Next, the marketing of these services focuses on the fact that the providers don’t use any sort of anesthetic or sedation. Several sites quote a single scientific article and claim that one out of every 253 pets dies from an anesthetic procedure. For people who have lost pets under anesthesia, these services seem heavenly and for others, it simply scares them.
What they DON’T tell you is that particular study was done at a veterinary teaching hospital where the vast majority of their surgical patients were severely ill or injured. Other studies show a much lower risk of anesthetic related deaths.
To be fair, anesthesia, like any medical practice, has risks. But, your veterinarian has the appropriate knowledge, skills, equipment and trained staff to help minimize adverse reactions.
Proponents of NADS also claim that it is healthier for the pet since the pet doesn’t need to undergo multiple anesthetic events. Again, this fiction is not borne out in reality as the vast majority of pets only need professional teeth cleanings once or twice annually.
Perhaps the biggest myth perpetrated by these unlicensed people is that a dental scaling will promote long term oral health for your pet. Dr. Brett Beckman, a veterinary dentist, has seen the effects of NADS on pets over time. He says, “these ‘cleanings’ actually do much more harm than good. The pitting of the enamel by the scalers allows for more hiding places for the plaque causing bacteria.” The American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) agrees. In a statement on their website, AAHA says that these scalings “make the teeth whiter, but not healthier!”
Even the aspect of saving money that is highly publicized may not be accurate. A search of pricing showed a range between $125 and a $165 for these procedures. While this might be less expensive than the veterinarian, these companies and individuals are recommending that their clients return, on average, once every three months. That’s $500 to more than $650 per year! Dr. Beckman elaborates that “the damage done by the scaling encourages plaque growth and then, of course, return visits. This might be good for business, but it’s certainly not good for the pet.”
Remember, many of the people who encourage and provide these sorts of services are unlicensed, often unsupervised and unregulated. This means that you have no official recourse if your pet is injured during the scaling. Cuts of the gums, neck strains and even long term anxiety have been reported.
If you are concerned about your pet’s dental health, the best resource for you is your veterinarian. He or she will have the right equipment to fully assess the whole mouth, not just the outer surfaces of the teeth. With dental x-rays and effective dental probing done on an anesthetized pet, your veterinarian can get the entire picture of the health of your pet’s mouth.
Ask questions if you are concerned about anesthetic safety. Other options for sedation may exist, based on the overall health of your animal. You should also proactively brush your pet’s teeth or ask about home care products that help minimize plaque accumulation. More
Experts believe that cats and humans have interacted with each other for more than 10,000 years. From their humble beginnings chasing rodents away from our food, cats have vaulted into our homes and hearts as North America’s favorite pet. Unfortunately, despite their popularity, cats aren’t treated to the same veterinary care that we provide our canine friends.
There are more than 80 million cats in US households and, after reviewing veterinary medical records, experts have concluded that our felines are actually 30% less likely to visit a veterinarian than dogs. What could possibly cause this difference?
Many people believe that a cat’s independent nature and their self-sufficiency mean that they are pretty low maintenance. After all, owners don’t need to walk their cats in a heavy rain or freezing blizzard. So, if cats are so good at taking care of themselves, they must not need a doctor, right?
Additionally, more than 50% of cat owners report that they have a difficult time transporting their pets or that the last trip to the veterinarian was too stressful for the kitty. Still other owners express concerns about adverse vaccine reactions or costs of treatments and preventive care.
Not only that, but as small to medium sized predators, cats instinctually hide their illnesses to avoid become dinner for a bigger predator. Owners can often miss the subtle signs that their kitty isn’t feeling well.
The unfortunate result out of all of this is that when we do see cats, they are often faced with advanced problems that are more costly and difficult to treat. Extensive kidney disease, uncontrolled diabetes and even widespread parasites top the list of feline issues. One study published showed that flea infestations in cats have increased by 12% in the last five years and ear infections are up more than 34%!
Thankfully, organizations like the CATalyst Council and the American Association of Feline Practitioners are stepping up to help educate owners about their feline friends’ medical needs. By stressing the importance and value of preventive medicine, these groups are working hard to insure that cats aren’t forgotten when it comes to veterinary care.
Our goal is to help owners understand that a visit to Deerfield is more than just a couple of vaccinations for their cats. A full physical examination done annually by our veterinarian is the first and probably most important thing a pet owner can do for their beloved feline. This exam can often spot early issues before they turn into big, expensive problems.
Additionally, cat owners are urged to have open communication with our veterinarians about which vaccines their pet actually needs and which ones can be avoided. We can review the cat’s risk factors and the overall prevalence of specific diseases in our area to make the best recommendation. Although adverse reactions are always a risk, this dialogue can help minimize any potential danger.
We have implemented recommendations from the CATalyst Council to make our practice more “feline-friendly”. Changes to scheduling, a separate entrance to the hospital, special waiting area and exam room for cats and their owners can help to encourage veterinary visits. After all, no cat wants to be seated next to a big, scary dog!!
Cats have been described as “aloof” or even “narcissistic”, but there really is a lot to admire about these wonderful animals. They are athletic, graceful and innately curious, qualities that we really seem to appreciate. The CATalyst Council is a great resource for finding out how you can insure your cat will live a long and healthy life. More