Ask any cat owner about how they care for their feline’s teeth and most will reply that “he eats dry food” or, more commonly “I really don’t clean her teeth”. While most veterinarians will acknowledge that brushing a cat’s teeth is a challenge for many owners, they will stress the importance of routine oral assessment of your cat’s mouth. These exams help find preventable problems and even some very concerning issues. One of those concerns we are seeing more frequently is called Feline Tooth Resorption.
Tooth Resorption, or “TR” as it is commonly called, is a condition seen in a growing percentage of cats over the age of six years. The same strange condition is also seen in dogs and in people, but it is not nearly as common.
In the past, this disease has been called “neck lesions”, “cervical line lesions” and even the cumbersome “Feline Odontoclastic Resorptive Lesions (FORLs)”. Whatever the name, we know that this condition is seen in cats who often appear normal. The process will continue to develop, causing extreme pain because of the exposure of the root canal. This can even lead to behavior changes and lack of normal appetite.
Dr. Brett Beckman, a noted board-certified veterinary dentist, says that an exact cause for TR has not been determined yet. Theories about exposure to certain viruses, breed prevalence and chronic inflammation of the mouth and gums have all been proposed as root causes. According to Beckman, a single study suggests that high levels of Vitamin D in cat foods could be linked to resorptive disease, but that research is still ongoing. Interestingly, there has even been evidence of TR in cat skeletons that are 800 years old!
Clinically, most cats will appear normal, but observant owners may note that their cat prefers to chew food on just one side or that the cat stops grooming. They may “toss” dry food into the back of their mouth. As TR progresses, some pets will even develop sullen or aggressive attitudes, as if they are mad at the world!
Eventually, your veterinarian may point out how some of your cat’s cheek teeth are showing lines of inflamed, fleshy material right near the base of the tooth. At this point, the erosion has exposed the tooth to the bacteria of the mouth and this is when affected cats become extremely painful. Even under a general anesthetic, a slight touch of these teeth will cause a cat to “chatter” their jaw, indicating very serious pain!
Dental x-rays are the only way to diagnose TR. When the radiographs are taken, if TR is present, your veterinarian can see changes in the density of the roots and crowns of the teeth. All teeth can be affected, but the major “signal” tooth is the first one in the lower jaw. Some teeth can be partially affected, while others may have completely dissolved away leaving a “ghost image”.
Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment that can save the pet’s teeth. A normal cleaning and polishing will not work! Veterinary dentists have even tried root canal therapies (endodonics), but they fail, as this resorption occurs on a microsopic basis. A tooth that is showing any signs of resorption needs to be extracted. Some cats will need full mouth extractions. All cats with a known history of TR should be x-rayed every six months to a year. It is likely other teeth are affected and they must be monitored.
The good news in all of this is that once your veterinarian knows about the disease, several things can be done to keep your cat comfortable. Experience has shown that cats who were once not eating well or even aggressive will often have a positive behavior change in just a matter of weeks. It is surprising how the removal of these painful teeth can often bring back your affectionate feline friend.
Owners are often unaware that their pets are experiencing such discomfort. But, regular visits to your veterinarian can help identify the issue and start work that will make your cat feel better. Contact your veterinarian to have a comprehensive oral examination for your pet, including dental x-rays and regular dental cleanings. More
Whether it’s rising floodwaters, raging wildfires or even acts of terrorism, catastrophic events require all kinds of professionals to respond. Even though most people know about police and firefighters, veterinarians are also often called to disaster scenes to help save lives and reunite families.
As we have all seen, tragic events like hurricanes, earthquakes or bombings take their toll on human lives. But, it’s not unusual to see animal victims of these disasters as well. Animals can be injured or lost and in the case of large scale calamities, local animal control resources are quickly overwhelmed.
Although our first thoughts often go to our companion animals, like dogs and cats, large animals, from horses to sheep and pigs to cattle are also at risk. In fact, horses will often panic and run in the face of danger while cattle will quickly scatter through downed fence lines.
What can local agencies do when animals are in need of help in addition to the local population of people?
Veterinary Emergency Teams (VET) are often called upon by local first responders when a disaster situation gets beyond their control. These well-equipped and well trained groups of volunteer veterinary professionals will bring in vital supplies, needed medications and even state of the art mobile facilities designed to provide a safe work environment as well resting quarters for the crew.
It’s obvious that these teams can function to help injured animals, but they actually can provide invaluable aid to local veterinarians who have suffered damage to their hospitals. In addition, these specialized emergency response units can also help triage animal cases, provide additional assistance to local animal control agencies by searching for microchips among lost pets and care for the many search and rescue or working dogs that aid in disaster relief.
Veterinary emergency teams also provide vital public health monitoring in the aftermath of catastrophes, give technical assistance to assure food and water safety and help prevent zoonotic and other disease outbreaks.
Although a National Veterinary Response Team (NVRT) has been established and operates within the National Disaster Medical System, many states will also field their own veterinary medical assistance teams. Colleges, such as Texas A&M, the University of California at Davis and others have also developed volunteer groups that have responded to a multitude of local emergency situations.
With the passage of the Pets Evacuation and Transportation Safety Act (“PETS Act”) in 2006, a greater emphasis has been placed on the care of our pets and animals in the event of large scale disasters. States must include animals in sheltering and evacuation plans and also provide means of tracking those animals throughout the event. Veterinary emergency teams are crucial to insuring that these standards are met.
Veterinarians, veterinary technicians, animal control officials, pharmacists and many others, including concerned citizens who aren’t in the animal health field, are eligible to volunteer for veterinary teams. Interested individuals should become familiar with the National Incident Command Structure as working in disaster zones requires a strict adherence to details and an organized system of communications. This means that even though you might have a strong passion for helping our four legged friends, you can’t just run into a danger zone and start trying to save pets. That type of action will not only endanger yourself, but also pull resources from where they may be needed if you get in trouble.
So, when disaster strikes, don’t be surprised to see volunteer veterinarians and technicians working with police and firefighters, saving lives and getting life back to normal and animals and families back together!
Develop a disaster preparedness plan for your pet at http://www.aspca.org/pet-care/disaster-preparedness. More
According to PetsAndParasites.com, a website devoted to tracking the occurrence of parasites in our pets, the prevalence of deadly heartworms continues to cause problems. More than 1% of dogs tested will be positive for heartworms in the US every year. That’s almost a million pets suffering from a preventable disease! Rates are even higher for parasites like roundworms, whipworms and hookworms!
Thankfully, we have had safe and effective parasite treatment and preventive products available for many years. So, why are we still seeing so many cases? There are many theories.
Despite the claims of Internet sites who say rising resistance among heartworms or massive failure of preventives is to blame, the reality is probably a little closer to home. Dr. Sheldon Rubin, a past president of the American Heartworm Society is quoted as saying that human error or forgetfulness is probably the biggest reason for pets developing heartworm disease. His comments are echoed by research in Mississippi, Arkansas and Louisiana that reviewed cases of presumed heartworm preventive failure and found that owner compliance was actually much lower than originally reported.
But, an uncertainty among pet owners about which product to use (market confusion), as well as economic factors, are fueling at least some of the issue. Generic heartworm preventives can now be found in many human pharmacies and online pet pharmacies are offering six to ten different medications to the public. It’s frankly hard for a pet owner to choose.
Experts from the American Heartworm Society recommend giving heartworm preventive year round. Just be sure you are using a prescription product that contains one of these known compounds; ivermectin, milbemycin oxime, selamectin or moxidectin. Then your pet needs to receive a dose once monthly, every month, all year long.
Some of these medications are also effective against intestinal parasites, such as roundworms, hookworms, and whipworms. A few of these preventives are also now using compounds to treat tapeworms in addition to the other parasites. It’s even possible to get heartworm preventive that also includes means to help control fleas!!
Part of consumer confusion is whether to buy the least expensive product or the one that covers every possible parasite. Veterinarians do understand how this can be such a confounding problem.
In fact, certain parasites are less common in some areas of the country and your pet’s risk factors vary quite a bit. These risk factors also include exposure to parasites through trips to dog parks, hiking or camping, interstate travel or even the presence of other animals in the household.
Veterinarians follow these trends every year. They couple this information with their understanding of the different life cycles, knowledge of your pet’s specific medical conditions, the reputation of the drug manufacturers and your region of the country. They are ideally equipped to help you more fully understand exactly which product provides the best parasite protection for your pet and your family.
Also it is so important for you not to fall for advice in online forums that recommend odd-ball alternative methods of protecting your pets against any parasite, but especially heartworm disease. Many of these simply fuel speculation about diminishing effectiveness of heartworm preventives and they are not well researched. These sites often misinterpret data or are actively promoting products that have not gone through proper testing and safety research.
This is an area of pet care where we have made great advances, but bad advice and a confusing market have created unnecessary risks and vulnerabilities. Trust your pet’s healthcare advice to your family veterinarian and team. Trusted products from Deerfield Veterinary Hospital can be found at our hospital. Our pharmacy is price competitive with most online and local big box retailers. Call the hospital today to setup your account with Deerfield. More
Veterinarians have estimated that more than 88 million pets are far too heavy and this tendency towards chubbiness is causing injuries, illnesses and even shortening life spans. Unfortunately, there is a serious disconnection between what veterinarians tell owners and what the owners see in their pets.
The Association for Pet Obesity Prevention (APOP) surveys veterinarians and owners each year to find just how overweight our pets are. Recent surveys have shown that 53% of dogs and 55% of cats are classified as overweight or obese by their veterinarians, but 15 to 22% of owners see those same pets as normal weight! In the words of APOP founder, Dr. Ernie Ward, pet owners have now normalized obesity and made fat pets the new normal.
What’s even worse is that despite veterinarians’ warnings, the numbers of fat pets continues to grow. In recent years, pets classified as obese (greater than 30% above normal body weight) have increased after each survey. This means that more and more pets are at higher risk for a variety of weight related problems.
Carrying excess pounds can cause pets to develop breathing problems, kidney disease and aggravate arthritis. Cats are extremely prone to acquiring Type 2 diabetes when they are overweight and any anesthetic procedure for your pet is automatically more of a risk because of increased body fat.
Above all, excess weight will shorten a pet’s lifespan. A landmark study has shown that pets who intake a limited amount of calories actually live almost two years longer than pets without calorie restriction.
Pet owners are the major gateway to both preventing our pets from becoming obese and in helping them lose the excess fat. After all, it’s the owner who controls the pet’s access to all foods!
So, if your veterinarian has diagnosed your pet as overweight, first, don’t despair. Your veterinarian is happy to develop a plan that will safely and effectively lose the extra pounds. Next, use tools like a Body Condition Score chart http://www.hillspet.com/weight-management/pet-weight-score.html to more fully understand what an overweight pet looks like.
Involve your whole family in the pet’s weight loss process. Assign one person to be the pet’s primary feeder and make sure that no one else in the family is providing non-approved treats or snacks on the side. It may not seem like much, but even a couple of dog biscuits each day can add an extra 50-100 calories. That’s almost 25% of a small dog’s total daily requirement!
For obease pets, your veterinarian will recommend a prescription weight reducing diet for your pet. Although you might be tempted to continue feeding the previous brand of food at smaller portions, this practice could actually lead to nutritional deficiencies. Reduction diets are specially formulated to provide the right amount of all nutrients while still limiting the amount of calories.
You may need to change your pet’s feeding schedule too. Most pet owners leave food out for their pets all day (free choice feeding) and that often leads to the obesity problem or they only feed a large amount once a day. By feeding a the right amount twice or even three times a day, you can actually help your pet lose more weight.
Increasing your pet’s exercise is also a crucial component to weight loss. Once your veterinarian gives the okay, try to work up to two 20 minute walks per day or even one hour long walk. The extra benefit is the positive effects on your health also!
For cats use kitty toys to encourage play and movement. Teasers on strings and even laser pointers can keep your cat moving and a couple of twenty minute sessions each day will help your feline burn more calories.
Once you have started the process, your veterinarian will want to see you for regular weigh-ins and consultations to make sure you are meeting goals and adjusting as needed. .
This is a serious issue and has proven affect on longevity. We all want our pets to be with us for as long as possible, so helping them lose excess weight is just one way we can help make that happen! More
More than 60% of pet owners have said that giving gifts to their cats or dogs is an important way of bonding. But, with thousands of pet sites trying to sell toys or Internet rumors about the dangers of this treat or that bone, how can you find something that is just right for your pet?
For many, a gift for their pet should consist of something fun and entertaining, like a durable toy. Veterinary experts also recommend the use of interactive toys that encourage exercise and activity. This has the dual benefit of burning calories from overweight pets and also providing a needed outlet for highly active dogs, like the working breeds. After all, a tired dog is a good dog!
To help meet this need for entertaining toys, companies like Kong (www.kongcompany.com) and Pet Qwerks (www.petqwerks.com) have developed innovative new ways to keep our pets active. Many of the Kong toys, like the Bounzer or the Wobbler, will bounce in random directions when tossed and are made of very durable rubber. There’s even a wide variety of sizes for your tiny or massive pooch!
The Babble Ball from Pet Qwerks is an interactive toy that actually “talks” to the pet when moved or even simply sniffed. More than 20 voices or sounds are created, entertaining even the laziest of pets. Cat lovers will appreciate the Kitty Babble Ball as well.
One of the best and least expensive toys to keep that flabby tabby moving is any one of the wide variety of Kitty Teaser products. Found at most retail stores and many online outlets, these simple fiberglass rods with feathers, ribbons or swirls attached will attract the attention of any cat and provide lots of entertainment for the owner.
Keeping our pets from becoming bored or even challenging their intelligence is the mission for several other pet companies. Aikiou (pronounced “I-Q”) (www.aikiou.com) has created a line of interactive feeding stations that simulate hunting and foraging activities. Likewise, Premier Pet Products (www.premier.com) uses their Busy Buddy line of toys to reward dogs for playful, constructive behavior.
It’s also very easy to find an amazing array of designer clothing, leashes, collars and even special feeding bowls for your unique friend. But, beyond all of these material things, what other gifts can help make sure that your pet is healthy and well protected?
One of the simplest and best ways to keep your pets safe is to make sure that they have permanent identification. Far too many pets are lost or stolen every year and the vast majority of these animals never make it back home to their owners. Have your veterinarian implant a microchip and be sure to keep the registration information current.
Another helpful gift idea is a pet health insurance policy. Although Fluffy and Fido may not fully appreciate it, having a policy can really lessen the impact of a traumatic accident, serious injury or substantial illness. Millions of pet owners have already found pet health insurance to be invaluable and it’s certainly a great gift idea for other pet owners in your family.
When it comes right down to it, all of the special toys, interactive puzzles or unique pet sweaters won’t take the place of the most important thing you can give your pet…your time! Spend some time every day with your pet by engaging them in play or some quiet grooming. It’s the very best thing you can give and your pet will love you all the more for it.
Your veterinarian is also a great source of advice for finding the right activities for your pet’s abilities. He or she can suggest other safe toys that will help keep your pet physically and mentally healthy. More